Maca - COMPOSITION



Maca root is an extraordinary food, source of considerably amount of amino acids, complex carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.

The nutritional value of dried Maca root is high, and the protein content of Maca exists mainly in the form of polypeptides and amino acids. Maca is also rich in fatty acids.

In addition to its rich supply of essential nutrients, Maca also contains an impressive array of bioactive components, any or all of which may be responsible for its numerous benefits.


Primary Bioactive Components



Alkaloids


Alkaloids are a large group of pharmacologically active substances found in plants. Many drugs are from plant-derived alkaloids, including digitalis, morphine, atropine and codeine. The alkaloids identified in Maca include: Macaina 1, 2, 3 and 4, Macamides and Macaenes (Zheng).

Alkaloids in Maca act on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and the adrenals. Maca has a balancing effect upon the hypothalamus, the master controller of the body, which then regulates the other endocrine glands, including the pituitary, adrenals, ovaries, testes, thyroid, and pancreas.

Glucosinolates


Glucosinolates (a group of sulphur-containing glycosides) are powerful anti-cancer plant compounds giving cruciferous vegetables their reputation as cancer-fighters. They are important because of their effects on enzymes and, particularly, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties against a variety of classes of carcinogens.

Glucosinolates metabolite examples include indole-3-carbinol and isothiocyanates , which have been identified in Maca. Some researchers believe Maca's p-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate is responsible for its aphrodisiac properties. It has also been shown to increase fertility in humans. Isothiocyanates are also known to alter estrogens metabolism in a favourable direction.

Sterols


Sterols are a large subgroup of steroid-like compounds found in plants and animals. Maca contains several sterols known for their ability to reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption thereby helping to lower blood cholesterol profiles. Reduced cholesterol can positively affect erectile response if erection is compromised by artery-clogging fats. Maca's ability to lower cholesterol seems to be an overlooked and understudied benefit of tremendous proportion as elevated cholesterol levels and arthrosclerosis reaches epidemic proportions. Maca is very dense and complete in nutrients; is rich in vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids and natural sterols. Maca is the best food ever known!

Main Components


  •   Water
  •   Proteins
  •   Lipids
  •   Hydrosalable Carbohydrates
  •   Ashes
  •   Fibre

Component

%

Water

5.00 - 19.62%

Proteins

10.10 - 18.25%

Lipids

0.20 -   2.20%

Hydrosalable Carbohydrates

51.81 - 76.05%

Ashes

3.46 -   6.43%

Fibre

3.85 -   8.50%



Vitamins


  •   Vitamin A  (Carotene)
  •   Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
  •   Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
  •   Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
  •   Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
  •   Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

Analysis made at the National Agricultural University of La Molina in Lima Peru , showed that maca also contains Vitamin B6, B12 and D.

Vitamin

mg/100g

Vitamin A (Carotene)

0.07

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

0.15 -  1.17

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

0.31 -  0.76

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

37.27 - 43.03

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

0.80  -   3.52

Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

87.00



Minerals


  •   Potassium
  •   Calcium
  •   Phosphorus
  •   Magnesium
  •   Sodium
  •   Iron
  •   Zinc
  •   Copper
  •   Manganese

Other identified trace minerals are Selenium and Boron

 Mineral

mg/100g

Potassium

1000.00 - 2050.00

Calcium

150.00 -   650.35

Phosphorus

183.00 -   329.00

Magnesium

70.00 -   114.00

Sodium

18.70 -     40.00

Iron

9.93 -     24.37

Zinc

2.80 -       6.12

Copper

               5.90

Manganese

               0.80



Amino Acids


  •   Aspartic Acid
  •   Glutanic Acid
  •   Serine
  •   Histidine
  •   Glycine
  •   Theonine
  •   Crystine
  •   Alanie
  •   Arginine
  •   Tyrosine
  •   Phenylanine
  •   Valine
  •   Methionine
  •   Isoleucine
  •   Leucine
  •   Lysine
  •   Tryptophan
  •   H. O. Proline
  •   Proline
  •   Sarcosine

Amino Acid

Concentration in mg/g of Protein

Aspartic Acid

91.70

Glutanic Acid

156.50

Serine

50.40

Histidine

21.90

Glycine

68.30

Theonine

33.10

Crystine

N/A

Alanie

63.10

Arginine

99.40

Tyrosine

30.60

Phenylanine

55.30

Valine

79.30

Methionine

28.0

Isoleucine

47.40

Leucine

91.00

Lysine

54.50

Tryptophan

N/A

H. O. Proline

26.00

Proline

0.50

Sarcosine

0.70



Fatty Acids


  •   Dodecanoic (lauric)
  •   7-Tridecenoic
  •   Tridecanoic
  •   Tetradecanoic (myristic)
  •   7-Pentadecenoic
  •   Pentadecanoic
  •   9-Esadecanoic (palmitolete)
  •   Esadecanoic (palmitic)
  •   9-Heptadecanoic
  •   Heptadecanoic
  •   9, 12 Octadecadienoic (linoliec)
  •   9-Octadecanoic (oleic)
  •   Octadecanoic
  •   11-Nonadecanoic
  •   Nonadecanoic
  •   15-Eicosenoic
  •   Eicosanoic (archidie)
  •   Docosanoic (behenic)
  •   15 Tetracosenoic (nervonic)
  •   Tetracosanoic (lignoceric)
  •   Fatty Acid Satured
  •   Fatty Acid Unsatured

Fatty Acid

Concentration in mg/g of Protein

Dodecanoic

0.80

7-Tridecenoic

0.30

Tridecanoic

0.10

Tetradecanoic

1.40

7-Pentadecenoic

0.50

Pentadecanoic

1.10

9-Esadecanoic

2.70

Esadecanoic

23.80

9-Heptadecanoic

1.50

Heptadecanoic

1.80

9,12 Octadecanoic

12.60

9-Octodecanoic

11.10

Octadecanoic

6.70

11-Nonadecanoic

1.30

Nonadecanoic

0.40

15-Eicosanoic

2.30

Eicosanoic

1.60

Docosanoic

2.00

15-Tetracosanoic

0.40

Tetracosanoic

0.40

Satured Fatty Acid

40.10

Unsatured Fatty Acid

52.70

Satured:Unsatured (Ratio)

0.76



Natural Sterols


  •   Brassicasteryl Acetate
  •   Ergosteryl Acetate
  •   Campesteryl Acetate
  •   Ergostadientyl
  •   Sitosteryl Acetate
  •   Sitosteryl Acetate
  •   Dodecanoic (lauric)

Sterols

%

Retention Time (min)

Brassicasteryl

9.10

22.40

Ergosteryl

13.60

23.80

Campesteryl

27.30

25.00

Ergostadientyl

4.50

27.50

Sitosteryl

45.5

19.50


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